Impacto de la acreditación sobre la calidad de servicios de atención de la salud: una revisión sistemática de literatura
Alkhenizana, Abdullah; Shawb, Charles (2011): Impact of Accreditation on the Quality of Healthcare Services: a Systematic Review of the Literature, Annals of Saudi Medicine. 2011 Jul-Aug; 31(4): 407–416.
Descriptores: <Informes de investigación> <Acreditación&> <Evaluación> <Hospitales> <Indicadores> <Servicios de salud> <Atención médica> <Auditoría> <Autoaprendizaje> <Calidad&> <Seguridad> <Educación sobre seguridad> <Certificados> <Calificaciones>
Accreditation is usually a voluntary program in which trained external peer reviewers evaluate a healthcare organization's compliance and compare it with pre-established performance standards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of accreditation programs on the quality of healthcare services.
Accreditation is usually a voluntary program, sponsored by a non-governmental organization (NGO), in which trained external peer reviewers evaluate a healthcare organization's compliance and compare it with pre-established performance standards. Quality standards for hospitals and other medical facilities were first introduced in the United States in the “Minimum Standard for Hospitals” developed by the American College of Surgeons in 1917. After World War II, increased world trade in manufactured goods led to the creation of the International Standards Organization (ISO) in 1947. Accreditation formally started in the United States with the formation of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) in 1951. This model was exported to Canada and Australia in the 1960s and 1970s and reached Europe in the 1980s. Accreditation programs spread all over the world in the 1990s. There are other forms of systems used worldwide to regulate, improve and market the services of healthcare provi
ders and organizations, including Certification and Licensure. Certification involves formal recognition of compliance with set standards (e.g., ISO 9000 standards) validated by external evaluation by an authorized auditor. Licensure involves a process by which governmental authority grants permission, usually following inspection against minimal standards, to an individual practitioner or healthcare organization to operate in an occupation or profession. Although the terms accreditation and certification are often used interchangeably, accreditation usually applies only to organizations, while certification may apply to individuals, as well as to organizations.
Method: We did a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the impact of accreditation programs on the quality of healthcare services. Several databases were systematically searched, including Medline, Embase, Healthstar, and Cinhal.
Results: Twenty-six studies evaluating the impact of accreditation were identified. The majority of the studies showed general accreditation for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), trauma, ambulatory surgical care, infection control and pain management; and subspecialty accreditation programs to significantly improve the process of care provided by healthcare services by improving the structure and organization of healthcare facilities. Several studies showed that general accreditation programs significantly improve clinical outcomes and the quality of care of these clinical conditions and showed a significant positive impact of subspecialty accreditation programs in improving clinical outcomes in different subspecialties, including sleep medicine, chest pain management and trauma management.
Conclusions: There is consistent evidence that shows that accreditation programs improve the process of care provided by healthcare services. There is considerable evidence to show that accreditation programs improve clinical outcomes of a wide spectrum of clinical conditions. Accreditation programs should be supported as a tool to improve the quality of healthcare services.
Reseñó e indizó JLT